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Downbeat: 1st beat of a measure
Pick-Up: the note or phrase before a measure starts.
Pencil = amazing invention that makes people better singers
Staff: the five lines upon which music is written
Staves: plural of Staff
Measure: bar lines separate each staff into measures
System: when 2 or more staves are connected by a bar line, they become a system.
Memory: something that is useful, but not as useful as a pencil.
Clef: the clef goes at the left end of each staff telling us whether we are singing high pitches or low pitches.
Treble (G) Clef: used by Sopranos and Altos (and occasionally Tenors and basses who would sing the pitches an octave lower)
Tenor Clef: looks like a Treble Clef but has the number “8” under it indicating it is an octave lower.
Bass (F) Clef: used by Basses and Tenors.
Tempo & Dynamic Markings: markings that tell us how fast or slow (tempo) or how loud and soft (dynamics).
Ledger Lines: when a pitch is written above or below a staff, a short horizontal ledger line is used.
Sharp: an accidental (#) that raises a pitch by a half step
Flat: an accidental ( b ) that lowers a pitch by a half step
Natural Sign: an accidental (#) that cancels a sharp or flat
Markings: something we do with a pencil so we don’t make the same mistake twice.
Key Signature: at the beginning of each staff there will be a pattern of either sharps or flats (or none) that tell us what the first note of the scale is.
No sharps or flats is the key of C or A minor
One sharp is the key of G or E minor
Two sharps is D or Bm
Three sharps is A or F#m
Four sharps is E or C#m
Five sharps is B or G#m
Relative Minor — Every major scale has a minor scale that shares the same key signature.
One flat is the key of F or Dm
Two flats is Bb or Gm
Three flats is Eb or Cm
Four flats is Ab or Fm
Good Musician: someone who uses a pencil
Time Signature: tells us two things. The top number tells us how many beats are in a measure. The bottom number tells us whether a quarter note (4) or an eighth note (8) gets the beat. So 4 over 4 would mean four quarter notes per measure.
Melodic Interval: the distance between a pitch and the pitch heard before or after it. An “A” pitch going to a “C” pitch would an interval of a third. Count the A as 1 and count up to C (1, 2, 3). Later on you can learn about the differences between major and minor intervals.
Harmonic Interval: in a chord like an A minor chord you would have three vertical pitches that are all heard at the same time. Because it is an A minor chord, the “root” of the chord would be an A. The next pitch would be a C (third higher). Then a third above that (the E).
Good Rehearsal: a rehearsal where the same mistakes don’t have to be fixed over and over – a rehearsal where singers use their pencils.
Pair of glasses = watch the conductor
< (nick name is hairpin) = getting louder
> = getting softer
Upward Arrow = the next pitch is higher
Downward Arrow = the next pitch is lower
Onward Arrow ——> = the next pitch is the same
Smiley Face = remember to smile with your eyes
Simply circling something is a helpful reminder
Don’t Sing Here, Sing Here, Same Pitch, Use Pencil, Accent, Short, Soft, Loud, Wait, Count, Smile, Be Nice,
Don’t Forget to Sharpen my Pencil.